Magnani and Multicolored in the Domestic Pigeon
Magnani among the Modenese
Pigeons probably have a long-standing tradition like Almonds at the
English Short Faced Tumblers. Both colors have the Stipple factor St
in common. This is responsible for the interruption of the color
supply during the formation of feathers and thus for the sprinkling
effect. The description of the coloring in the standards for Modenas,
however, usually offer a greater scope. Particularly popular are
pigeons with lighter creme coloring in the shield, the almond tone
in the ground not completely missing. For German Modeneser a lighter
or darker almond ground is wanted, sometimes with blue-grey tone.
Primaries and tails are creamy to whitish with dark speckles. In the
standards the coloring in Germany is called for all breeds
'multicolored'. In the USA despite the difference to almond they are
also named almond. In Oriental Rollers one speaks in Germany also
from multicolored though many of them are very similar to almond. In
the American standard of 1979, p. 131, it was also multicolored,
meanwhile it changed to almond. In the standard a color similar to
the English Short Faced is desired. The often found statement that
all variants with the Stipple gene formerly were called 'Almonds' is
wrong. That was not true in any breed. Sprinkle in the 1979 were
listed as 'bi-colored', thus 'zweifarbig' as in the German Standard
from 1954. Bi-colored black are our today 'black sprinkle'.
In the German Standard for Modeneser 'Sprinkle' are a su-group of
Mangnani besides multi-colored, they show a silver ground with black
Magnani Modena and
Italian Owl multicolored (Photos: Layne
very old literatur similar colorings were sometimes mentioned as 'Harlekin'.
This would be, like Magnani, also a more appropriate term for many
other breeds with this color that is not almond The term 'Almond'
suggests too fast a comparison with the coloration of the English
Short Faced, which is usually not attempted by the breeders at all.
The secondary colors in
other breeds also differ from those of the English Short Faced
Tumblers. Dark checks with more or less bronze mostly take over the
part of the kites. Even weaker reds and yellows are found as the
counterpart of the agates in the breeds. The secondary colorations
are also indispensable in multi-color breeding. Two multicolored
mating together, as with Almond, to a quarter lead to homozygous
white cocks with vitality problems and eye defects. Such pairings
should be omitted from the viewpoint of animal welfare. The actual
coloration plays for the breeding partners not the role, which she
has with the English Short Faced Tumblers. The tolerance range on
the exhibitions is very large so that the percentage of for the
exhibition suitable young is higher than in almond breeding.
Modeneser at a German breeder with the secondary colors used there
Komorn Tumbler with a
dark 'kite' female of that breed (Source: Sell, Genetik der
Breeders and judges should
accept that Magnani and Multicolored are not Almonds. Also kites and
agates of the multi-colored breeding should not be equated with
kites and agates called in English Short Faced Tumblers. However,
they are similar and play a similar role in the breeding concept. It
would be clearer to speak of kites and agates in certain breeds, to
avoid confusion. That is, kites of the Modenesians or Komorner
Tumblers. Theoretically that sounds good, however, it is not
practical. You cannot create a new name for each variant.
As in the case of Almonds,
crosses with piebalds, mottles and tigers of different kinds should
also be avoided. This can result in individual with some completely
white primaries and tail feathers. That does not have to disturb the
holder without exhibition ambitions, but is punished at exhibitions
with correct judgment. In some breeds the judges, however, are blind
in that point despite the standard requirements.
Are Almonds and the
different varieties difficult to breed? Very good animals are
difficult to raise in all breeds and colors. If every youngster were
excellent, there would be no competition. This is in the nature of
show competition. The breeding is not more complicated than in many
other breeds were show birds are heterozygous, e.g. Indigo,
Andalusian, Light Blue and Isabell. In these, only half of the young
show the desired coloration, the others are also secondary colors.
In the English Short Faced, the secondary colors are attractive show
varieties as well, and also in many the multi-colored ones, classes
for the secondary colors have been created.
multicolored, Kite and Red Agate (from right to left)
large part of the breeding problems is not due to the complex color,
but to 'breeding failure'. Anyone who crosses with piebalds, tigers
and unsuitable secondary colors reduces the proportion of young with
show quality. Also those, who despite the urgently recommendation in
literature mate two multicolored together and produce one quarter
non-lively progeny, are responsible for themselves for their poor
results in the breeding pen.
Sell, Axel, Genetik der Taubenfärbungen, Achim
Sell, Axel, Pigeon Genetics.
Applied Genetics in the Domestic Pigeon, Achim 2012