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Genetics

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Genetic Traits

In this schedule genes are classified as non-sex linked and sex-linked traits.

Non-sex linked traits are sub-divided as color genes, genes of structure and feathering and finally as other traits.  

Non-sexed linked color genes

Gene

Symbol

inheritance

Typical phenotype

Pattern:

 

 

 

Bars (Wild-type)

+

-

Two wing bars, on a black and brown color base a brown or black tail bar respectively

Checker

Dark Checker

C

CD

dominant

dominant

Checker, color depending on basic color and other traits, homozygous checks darker and similar to Hollanders dark checks CD

T-pattern checker

CT

dominant

Dark checker with visible heavy checks up to a lacing  

Dark

CDk

dominant

Dark without any lacing. To be separated from self black by the blue tail and black tail band

barless

c

recessive

Lacking wing bars, on a black and brown color base a brown or black tail bar respectively

Other:

 

 

 

Spread

S

dominant

Self color on the non-white parts of plumage, e.g. self black, self brown, lavendel (Spread Ash, self dominant red)

Albino al recessive white with red eyes

Anthrazit

An

dominant

Bleaching of the plumage, often some darker feathers are not affected (Bernhard Köllfhofer, Andreas Boisits)

Bleached

Bl

dominant

Bleaching effect, e.g. at Luzern Gold Collars

Cherry

och

recessive

Allele of Recessive Opal, recessive to opal, similar to light ash red and ash red checker

Dirty

V

dominant

Darkening of Plumage, first days after hatching dark feets.

Plumbum, Plomb

pb

recessive

Brown-bronze Pattern with black tail bar. Together with Spread a plomb-like appearance in shield, wings and tail Head dark, some strains today rather dark compared to the early Trumpeters with this trait. Shows up also in combination with recessive red.  

Gimpel- or Archangelbronze 1 (Quinn's Kite Archangel)

Ka1

dominant

Bronze or copper Gimpel coloration at the body. In combination with pale gold. Ka1 mainly restricted to the body, usually the head is not or less affected.

Gimpel- or Archangelbronze 2

ka2

recessive

Spreading of copper or bronze over the head

Dominant Opal

Od

Dominant

Yellowisch to white lightening of the patter, a general bleaching of the plumage in different degree. Colorations e.g. light blue, isabel, in homozygous state lethal..

Drizzle

Drz

dominant

Bleaching similar to anthrazith (Larry Long,James Gratz). Homozygous according to James Gratz probably lethal. Relation to anthrazit not yet analysed

Ice

Ic

dominant (intermediate)

Ice blue color caused by lightening the outer part of the feather, on a black color base dark bars or checks and dark tail band

Indigo

In

dominant (intermediate)

Brown-reddish checks and bars on a light grayish base with bleached tail bar, in combination with Spread Andalusia. Homozygous indigo plus Spread occur light silver, without Spread similar to ash red.

Kite

K

Dominant

Dark bronze mainly in the inner vane of primaries, general bronze tint (English Short Faced)

Bronze atlas

ba

recessive

bronze-atlas: Arabian Trumpeter reddish tint with cloudy blue color on a smoky-blue ground

Milky

my

recessive

Milky bleaching that also affects bars and tail bar, in combination with Spread „silver“ or „lavendel“ of Lahore and Mookee.

Modena-Bronze (Mahogany)

Ma

Dominant

Bronze pattern, does not affect the tail band. Named Ts) as part of the Toy Stencil-complex

Orient-Stencil

fs

recessive

Lacing, white bars and tail spots at Oriental Owls if S is absent. Without Toy Stencil traits no entirely white coloration

Pencil

pc

recessive

Dark lacing on a light base, e.g. the lacing and bars of Spaniards and Pigeons of Brive.

Pink-eyed Dilute

pd

recessive

Lighting of plumage and extreme red eyes

Platinum

pl

recessive

In the pattern version bown-reddish pattern on a slate platinum base, bleached tail bar. In combination with Spread light platinum cocks and dark platinum hens (Sex-Dimorphism)  

Rezessive Opal

o

recessive

Reduction of intensity of color, bleaching of tail bar. Together with Spread dark grey hens and lighter cocks (similar but not identical with recessive opal and some Spread Reduced)

Rezessive Red

e

recessive

Red, yellow (dilute) or gold (pale) pumage inclusive of tail and flights-

Ember

eEm

dominant

In the juvenile plumage like poor recessive red, after the moult blue with reddish bars or checks.

Rusty

ry

Recessive

Bronze-reddish, in the pattern variant light grey tail with darker stripes, in combination with Spread dark grey, tail band with small whitish stripes, hens usually not as intensive

Grizzle

G

dominant (intermediate)

Peppery lightenig of feathers in heterozygous birds, homozygous lighter, in combination with BA up to near white

Small tail band

Sm

Dominant

Small tail band, typical for Uzbek Tumblers

Smoky

sy

Recessive

Darkening of plumage, lightening of skin and beak, outer tail feather’s fane not white in difference to Wild-type.  

Sooty

So

Dominant

Color at the central area of the feather, sometimes misclassified as checker. Formerly also so. Often shows first with the molt

Tiger-Grizzle

GT

dominant (intermediate)

Colored and white feathers intermixed, usually colored head and primaries

Toy Stencil (Toy Stencil-komplex)

Ts

partial dominant

Responsible for white pattern, e.g. Modena. Probably the result of three traits acting together (Ts1, Ts2, ts3) h

Undergrizzle

Ug

Dominant

Whitening oft he basal part of the feathers along the basal shaft

Rezessive White

zwh

Recessive

White with dark eyes, epistatic to most color genes

White Grizzle

GW

Dominant

White or near to white plumage (e.g. Danzig Highfliers, Pomeranian Eye Crested Highfliers and according to Gibson in Gimpel as a mutation

Timisoarer Tumbler Grizzle

Ttg

Dominant

Tigered shield with colored primaries and tail

White Shield

Ws

Dominant

White shields in combination with invisible  "Enablers" (Kvidera, Leiß)

Red Neck

WsRh

dominant

Allelic to Ws (e.g. Uzbek Flying Tumblers)

Pseudo tiger

Pst

Dominant

Changes Grizzle to tiger in case of specific gene combination inclusive of Spread (according to Leiß at “Hamburg Schimmel”)

Sex-linked Genes

Basic colors

 

 

 

Black (Wild-type)

+

-

Bluish-black color, basis of blue and black colorations. Genetically also the base of other colorations modified by additional factors, e.g. most recessive red, bronze Modena etc.

Dominant Red (Ash Red)

BA

Dominant

Ash-Red Color, basis of ash red and ash yellow colorations and other colorations modified by additional traits. Typical are ash red flights and tail feathers.

Brown

b

Recessive

Basis of brown and khaki colorations

Dilution traits:

 

 

 

Dilution

d

Recessive

Reduction of intensity of color, black becomes dun, blue become blue silver, ash red becomes ash yellow, recessive red becomes recessive yellow etc.  

Pale

dp

Recessive

Reduction of intensity of color in a lower degree than dilution d

Extreme Dilution Ecru

dex

Recessive

Extreme lightening of the plumage

Traits at the Stipper-Locus:

 

 

 

Stipper-Gen (Almond)

St

Dominant

Almond and “Vielfarbene”: Two- or three-colored feathers, in combination with Spread Black Sprenkle“, homozygous cocks near to white and often bladder-eyed

Faded

StF

Dominant

Light creamy or whitish cocks and light faded hens, e.g. a washed out blue bar or mealy

Qualmond

StQ

Dominant

Similar to St, between St and Faded

Hickory

StH

Dominant

Similar to St, the tail shows more coloration and a tail bar.

Sandy

StSa

Dominant

Similar to  St, but less flecking

Frosty

Stfr

Recessive

Frosty lightening of cock, hens are not affected

Others:

 

 

 

Reduced

r

Recessive

Reduction of Intensity of color, blue bar and blue checker get a reddish tint. In combination with Spread blue laced or silver grey. Becomes darker during the first molt.

Rubella

rru

recessive

Reduction of intensity of color similar to cherry and reduced. In combination with Spread silvery grey.

Short beak 2

Ku2

Dominant

Reduction of the beak, acts together with the non-sex linked trait Ku1.  

Web-Lethal

wl

Recessive

Web between the toes, variable effect, homozygous birds often die in the shell

 

 Traits of feathering

Name

Symbol

Inheritance

Phenotype

Crest

cr

Rezessive

Feather crest of different types like peak, shell etc.

Chinese Nasal Crest

Cnc

Dominant

Nasal Crest at Chinese Tumblers

eye crest

ecr

Rezessive

Eye crests at Pomeranian Eye-Crested Highfliers, linked with shell crest, but due to crossing over plain headed birds with eye-crests occured

Sideburns

Sb

Dominant

At the head, mostly near the beak, reversed feathers

Frayed

F

Dominant

Softer plumage than usual, homozygous similar to silky

Frizzy

fr

Rezessive

Unrevels mostly the proximal portions oft he larger feathers, more pronounced in the juvenal plumage

Curl 1 (frillback)

Cu1 

Dominant

According to Wexelsen together with a second trait responsible for frillbacks, later symbolised Cu1 and Cu2

Curl 2 (frillback)

Cu2

Dominant

Second trait responsible for frillback

Bald nake,

naked neck

Bn

Dominant (intermediate)

In the first weeks normal, after a while the feathers in the neck drop out (Romanian Bald Naked Tumbler), only on an Ash Red (BA) basis (van Grouw)

Grease quills

 

Variable

Small greasy feathers, typical for intense colorations

Tailless

 

Recessive

Occured in Roller-pigeons

Tailless and flightless

 

Recessive

"Baby-Doll"-Effect in different breeds

Naked

na

Recessive

Entirely naked, in a strain in the USA, but now extinct, similar effects with some small feather bushels in German Racing Homer 2009/10

Porcupine

p

Recessive

Feathers fail to open

Fringe

fg

Recessive

Similar to silky, not as soft

Scraggly

sc

Recessive

extreme Silky with skin abnormally thick and unpliable

Deutsch Scraggly (German Scraggly)

dsc

Recessive

Similar to Strcaggly, not as extreme

Silky

L

dominant (intermediate)

Frayed plumage, homozygous extreme

grouse

gr

recessive (intermediate)

Medium muffed

Slipper

Sl

Dominant

Shorter foot feathering like in English Pouter

Nasal and beak tuff, rosette

ros

Recessive

Nasal and beak tuff covers the front over the beak, the rosette is a circular forehad crest, birds with crest and tuff or rosette are called „double-crested“

Frillneck (German „Krause“ at the breast)

kr (kr1 und kr2)

Recessive

Frills at the breast of Owls

Split tail)

sl (sl1 und sl2)

Recessive

Forked tails as in Schmolln Trumpeter

Iridescent

Ir

dominant (intermediate)

Feather structure to cause the green sheen in Archangels (Blackwing-Gimpel)

  Other traits

Feed blind

fb

recessive

Problems to peck the feed

Clumsy

cl

recessive

Vision problems and by this unstable behavior

Blind

bl

recessive

Blind without any noticable effect at the eyes

Cataract

ca

recessive

Clouding of the lens

Mikrophthalmie

mi

recessive

Small eyes, most birds affected are blind

Erratic

er

recessive

Uncoordinated movement and vision problems

Ataxia

at

recessive

Staggering behavior, uncoordinated movement

Tumbling, rolling

ro

recessive

Tumbling, different styles and degree caused by modifying traits

Web-foot

w

recessive

Skin between the toes in different degree

Amputated

am

recessive

Different expression, sometimes missing toe or toes, missing wing tip

Polydactyly

py

recessive

Extra hind toes and usually reduced vigor, different variants, e.g. skpy in strains of American King. The variant  t causes extra toes at the outside of each foot, Another type produced young that had a lot of extra toes but failed to hatch, symbol tH because the discovery was due to L.B. Tharp in the USA.

No oil gland

n

recessive

No oil gland

Achondroplasia

ac

recessive

Lethal trait, prevents birds to hatch, youngsters in the egg show very short limbs and beak.

Pearl Eyes

tr

recessive

Perl eye

Dark Eyes

da

recessive

Dark eye of Arabian Trumpeters, epistatic to pearl and orange

Beak length 1

Ku1

dominant (intermediate)

Short beak, acting together with the sex-linked gene Ku2 short beaks are caused

Hubbel Breast

Hu

dominant

Larger breast in Hubbel Squab Pigeons